Studies that have investigated the impact of a father's sensitivity on child outcomes while controlling for maternal sensitivity have found that fathers' sensitivity influences both cognitive and social development (Holmes & Huston, 2010; NICHD ECCRN, 2004; 2005; Tamis-LeMonda, Shannon, Cabrera, & Lamb, 2004; Youngblade & Belsky, 1992).
Inter-rater reliability ranged .93 to .96 (NICHD: ECCRN, 1999).
Internal consistency was .90 for mothers and .89 for other adult caregivers (NICHD: ECCRN, 1999).
The alpha level on this scale ranged from .81 to .87 (NICHD: ECCRN, 1999).
Regarding the influence of the socio-economic status, the results found in this study were similar to those observed in previous research (NICHD ECCRN
, 2005; Bradley & Corwyn, 2002), showing a significant main effect, i.e., as family income increases, children's social competencies rise and behavior problems decrease.
The NICHD Study of Early Child Care (NICHD ECCRN, 1996) also demonstrated that smaller group size was associated with positive caregiving behaviors.
Research also indicates that a high level of formal education of the teacher is strongly associated with high-quality teacher-child interactions (Helburn, 1995; Howes et al., 1992; NICHD ECCRN, 1996, 2000a; Phillips, Howes, & Whitebook, 1991; Whitebook et al., 1989).
The quality of caregiving and specifically adult-child interaction often are distinguished as crucial components of high-quality child care and education (Bowman, Donovan, & Burns, 2001; Dwyer, Chait, & McKee, 2000; Kontos, Howes, Shinn, & Galinsky, 1995; NICHD ECCRN, 2000b; Phillips, Mekos, Scarr, McCartney, & Abbott-Shim, 2000; Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000).