ECCRNEarly Child Care Research Network (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)
ECCRNEmergency Command Control Radio Network
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Studies that have investigated the impact of a father's sensitivity on child outcomes while controlling for maternal sensitivity have found that fathers' sensitivity influences both cognitive and social development (Holmes & Huston, 2010; NICHD ECCRN, 2004; 2005; Tamis-LeMonda, Shannon, Cabrera, & Lamb, 2004; Youngblade & Belsky, 1992).
Inter-rater reliability ranged .93 to .96 (NICHD: ECCRN, 1999).
Internal consistency was .90 for mothers and .89 for other adult caregivers (NICHD: ECCRN, 1999).
The alpha level on this scale ranged from .81 to .87 (NICHD: ECCRN, 1999).
Regarding the influence of the socio-economic status, the results found in this study were similar to those observed in previous research (NICHD ECCRN, 2005; Bradley & Corwyn, 2002), showing a significant main effect, i.e., as family income increases, children's social competencies rise and behavior problems decrease.
(27.) NICHD ECCRN. Familial factors associated with the characteristics of non-maternal care for infants.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network (NICHD ECCRN) (1999).
This finding is somewhat conflicting, since many studies found a significant benefit to children's development in being enrolled in pre-kindergarten (see Magnuson et al., 2004, 2006; NICHD ECCRN, 2004b).
The NICHD Study of Early Child Care (NICHD ECCRN, 1996) also demonstrated that smaller group size was associated with positive caregiving behaviors.
Research also indicates that a high level of formal education of the teacher is strongly associated with high-quality teacher-child interactions (Helburn, 1995; Howes et al., 1992; NICHD ECCRN, 1996, 2000a; Phillips, Howes, & Whitebook, 1991; Whitebook et al., 1989).
The quality of caregiving and specifically adult-child interaction often are distinguished as crucial components of high-quality child care and education (Bowman, Donovan, & Burns, 2001; Dwyer, Chait, & McKee, 2000; Kontos, Howes, Shinn, & Galinsky, 1995; NICHD ECCRN, 2000b; Phillips, Mekos, Scarr, McCartney, & Abbott-Shim, 2000; Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000).