2 and 3 SEM images of the LLDPE-CNTS composites produced by melt mixing and succeeding ECMAE are shown.
The number and the size of the large agglomerates are decreased after ECMAE, as the agglomerates become broken and dispersed under shear deformation and high pressure.
It is seen that the dispersion of CNTs is improved after ECMAE. Before ECMAE, there were some nanoagglomerates within the sample.
Microhardness measurements were carried out with using samples in the deformed state and in the state annealed after ECMAE. The anneal consisted in heating of extrudates up to the prescribed temperature for 30 min.
Influence of ECMAE or mechanical properties of polymers.
2 demonstrates DSC curves of the original HDPE and that after ECMAE. An analogous result was obtained for other studied polymers, too.
The absolute values of [bar.H] are also higher than those after a one-stage ECMAE process with a higher [epsilon].
In the case of ECMAE and ED-ECMAE the die swelling is absent.
In the case of ECMAE, the maximum extrusion pressure increases with [epsilon] (Table 1).
Methods of [P.sub.m] [[bar.H].sup.[perpendicular [DELTA]H deformation (MPa) to]]([[bar.H].sup.||]) ECMAE 410 109(140) 0.22 ([epsilon] = 1.3) ECMAE 505 132(164) 0.20 ([epsilon] = 4.0) ECMAE 1000 148(172) 0.14 ([epsilon] = 6.7) ED 90 82(128) 0.36 ED-ECMAE 625 150(178) 0.16 ([epsilon] = 4.0) ECMAE 1280 92(166) 0.45 ([epsilon] = 4.0)-ED Methods of [D.sub.H] deformation ECMAE 3.70 ([epsilon] = 1.3) ECMAE 1.96 ([epsilon] = 4.0) ECMAE 1.02 ([epsilon] = 6.7) ED 1.94 ED-ECMAE 0.84 ([epsilon] = 4.0) ECMAE 1.22 ([epsilon] = 4.0)-ED A high [P.sub.m] value attained under the ECMAE-ED implementation may, possibly, be due to the high deformation accumulated at the first stage of the process.
Influence of ECMAE and ECAE on characteristics of polymers.
Thus, it is more efficient to realize the processes of molecular orientation by ECMAE with low [V.sub.e].