In particular, the first 50 genes supported that the ubuquitin genes, such as UBB, UBC, EEF2
, were related to the pathogenesis of MM.
Rospert et al., "Carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 CORM-2 represses global protein synthesis by inhibition of eukaryotic elongation factor eEF2
," The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol.
Cohen, "A novel method to identify protein kinase substrates: eEF2
kinase is phosphorylated and inhibited by SAPK4/p38[delta]," EMBO Journal, vol.
Endogenous eEF2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TKY675 was replaced by a genomically integrated histagged analog (kindly provided by Terri Goss Kinzy, Piscataway, NJ) (18).
Both proteins were eluted with buffer containing 250 mmol/L imidazole, renatured by dialysis at 4 [degrees]C against 2 mol/L urea/10 mmol/L Tris (pH 7.4)/1 mmol/L reduced glutathione, twice against 20 mmol/L Tris (pH 7.4)/1 mmol/L EDTA, and twice against PBS (150 mM NaCl, 8.3 mM [Na.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4], 1.7 mM K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], pH 7.4), concentrated as described above for eEF2 purification, and stored at -20 [degrees]C.
Elevated eEF2 phosphorylation has also been observed in cachectic mice bearing Murine adenocarcinoma 16 (MAC16) tumors .
ERK, extracellular signal-related kinases; Akt, protein kinase B; TSC1/2, tuberous sclerosis complex 1 and 2; Rheb, ras homolog enriched in brain; mTORC1, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1; RagA/B, RagA and RagB heterodimer; RagC/D, RagC and RagD heterodimer; AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; S6K1, ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1; S6, ribosomal protein S6; 4E-BP1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor binding protein 1; eIF4E, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E; eEF2K, eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase; eEF2, eukaryotic elongation factor 2; eIF2a, eukaryotic initiation factor alpha; eIF2B, eukaryotic initiation factor 2B; UPR, unfolded protein response.
As an important positive regulatory factor involving in the Met-mediated regulation of [beta]-case in translational elongation and secretion, RPL35 was found to control ribosome translational elongation during synthesis of [beta]-case by interacting with eukaryotic translational elongation factor 2 (eEF2
) and that eEF2
was the signaling molecule downstream of RPL35 controlling this process .
A p70S6k, quando ativada, fosforila e inativa a enzima quinase do fator de elongacao 2 (eEF2K), fato este que permite que o eEF2
seja ativado, o que promove a elongacao.
CORM-2 prevented serum-induced eEF2
dephosphorylation, in a time-dependent manner and inhibited the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signalling pathway in PSCs, independently of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway, at concentrations of up to 100 [micro]M.
The housekeeping gene and its primers were as follows: EEF2
(fw): 5'-GAC ATC ACC AAG GGT GTG CAG-3' and EEF2
(rv): 5'-GCG GTC AGC ACA CTG GCA TA-3', respectively.
Important proteins that can be modified by MDA adducts are as follows: (i) eElongation factor 2 (eEF2
) catalyzes the movement of the ribosome along the mRNA in protein synthesis.