family members, eIF4E1 plays the central role in mRNA recruitment.
Regulation of cap-dependent translation by eIF4E
In addition, several proteins involved in translational machinery, like EIF1, EIF3J, and EIF4E
, and different 40S ribosomal proteins are among the underexpressed group of proteins.
Activated MEK-ERK signaling enhances eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E
) phosphorylation via activated MAPK-interacting protein kinase-1 (MNK1), which may lead to enhancement of P2X4R translation.
This is associated with a redistribution of eIF4E
from an active complex (i.e., eIF4E-eIF4G) to an inactive complex (i.e., eIF4E-4EBP1), thereby preventing mRNA translation.
4EBP1 binds to the translation initiator factor eIF4E
, repressing protein synthesis.
Initiation begins with the assembly of eIF4F complex comprising eIF4E
, eIF4G, and eIF4A onto the 5' [m.sup.7]G cap (Figure 1).
For instance, SGs induced by glucose deprivation contain eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4E
and eIF4G proteins, mRNAs, and the poly(A)-binding protein Pab1 [12,13], whereas SGs induced by oxidative stress have distinct major components such as eIF2 and downstream factors .
Consistently, NnV suppressed phosphorylation of S6 and eIF4E
. Despite the inactivation of PI3K-mediated p-Akt (Thr308), mTOR1 inhibition still promotes feedback activation of mTOR2-driven phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 [32, 33].
MiR-1 protects heart structure and functions against cardiac hypertrophic responses by directly targeting and inhibiting translation of many signaling molecules including eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (Eif4e
), Mef2a, Gata4, and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) [7-9].
association with 4E-BP decreases rapidly following fertilization in sea urchin.
is the cap-dependent translation initiation factor to shut off host protein synthesis.