However, the aforementioned interventions were conducted on participants without exercise induced muscle damage EIMD
. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, no study has compared the effect of vibration rolling with non-vibration rolling in individuals with EIMD
in both the knee and hip joint to analyze its effects on training recovery.
17 Non-pharmacological interventions to combat EIMD
Prevention strategies are not much handy as muscle soreness is a normal physiological response to vigorous physical activity.
Moreover, both men and women have been shown to respond similarly to EIMD
For socioeconomic deprivation, we entered an average of reconstructed EIMD
scores by UHI decile groups into the simpler model (the first method) as a second modifier of heat and cold (i.e., further interaction terms in model 3).
However, training and match play data provides insight into changes related to accumulated neuromuscular fatigue, and the aforementioned parameters are often used as criteria to evaluate individual changes in response to both EIMD
and impact induced muscle damage (IIMD) (Lindsay et al., 2015b; Naughton et al., 2017).
Pre and post supplementation readings of the criterion variables, hs-cRP, CK, MPO, isometric muscle strength, maximum aerobic capacity heart rate and muscle soreness were obtained at baseline (Day 1), at 24 hours (Day 2) and at 48 hours (Day 3) following EIMD
Clinicians and coaches are concerned with EIMD
as it may interrupt the sports performance, phase of training and the rehabilitation process of the individual.
The most important symptom of EIMD
is probably a decreased ability to perform maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), encompassing both maximal force (Warren et al., 1999, Eston et al., 2003) and the maximal rate of force development (Strojnik and Komi, 1998, Vila-Cha et al., 2012).
Neuromuscular impairment during a prolonged tennis match may be due to the failure of central activation and alterations in excitation-contraction coupling process (Girard et al., 2008), which is linked to EIMD
(Warren et al., 1999).
However, Howatson and Van Someren (2007) and Starbuck and Eston (2012) provided evidence that the protective effect of a prior episode of EIMD
was cross transferred in the elbow flexors and also related this effect to a neural adaptations.
However, studies suggest that long-term supplementation with vitamin C and/or E may decrease the signs and symptoms of EIMD
through ROS reduction following muscle damage (Bloomer, 2007; Howatson and Van Sormeren, 2008).
Recently, CWI have gained increasing popularity as a means to improve recovery after strenuous training (Barnett, 2006); although most of the benefits in attenuating symptoms of EIMD
are based on anecdote and lack empirical evidence (Wilcock et al., 2006).