EKCSExtended Kanban Control System (manufacturing process)
EKCSEpidermal Keratinocyte Culture Supernatants
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References in periodicals archive ?
The aim of this article is to analyse the relationship between GHG as the main variable of climate change and GDP, using EKC technique, and to empirically check if the statement regarding the EKC relationship between GHG and GDP holds true in European countries.
--to review and assess the available literature on EKC;
Employing cross-sectional analysis and typically focusing on specific pollutants, a number of researchers have found empirical evidence that is consistent with the EKC (Cropper and Griffiths, 1994; Grossman and Krueger, 1995; Hettige, Lucas, and Wheeler, 1992; Hilton and Levinson, 1998; List and Gallet, 1999; Seldon and Song, 1994; Shafik, 1994) .
In their analysis of data from 115 countries in 2000, McPherson and Nieswiadomy (2005) used the number of endangered species per country as a proxy for multidimensional environmental degradation and found evidence of an N-shaped EKC. Given the broad international coverage included in their data, the EKC finding serves as an empirical rebuttal to the criticism that EKC relationships only are observed because rich countries export their environmental degradation to poor countries.
Since the early 1990s, the so called environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), an empirical inverted U relationship between pollution and income per capita, has been studied in different contexts due to its eventually promising implications for making economic growth sustainable in the future.
The EKC is an empirical finding showing that the emission levels of a given pollutant to the environment, or its concentration levels in the environment, first rise as income per capita of a country or a city rises along time and then, after reaching a maximum (called 'turning point'), they decline as income per capita continues growing.
In the next section, I review EKCs, focusing on turning points and the race to the top.
EKCs gained prominence in 1995 when the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) became the focus of national debate.
However, with the pace of development as suggested by the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, the level of carbon emission is expected to rise for many of the economies, contributing further to global warming.
But as Ang (2008) argues even though the relationship between output and pollution has been extensively studied, most of the studies mainly focus on testing the validity of the so-called Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC).
(i) According to the EKC hypothesis, continued economic growth, while initially damaging to the environment, eventually leads to superior environmental quality.