In recent years, closed-type ELCAD has been applied for the analysis of several real samples including water samples [18, 23], human hair and stream sediment , honeys , tuna fish and aquatic plant , titanium dioxide , zircaloys [28, 29], colloidal silica , and soils and spruce needles .
Recently, based on the principle of ELCAD, we also successfully developed a novel liquid cathode glow discharge-atomic emission spectrometry (LCGD-AES) for the simultaneous determination of multimetal elements in water samples  and ores samples , in which the glow discharge is sustained between a needle-like Pt anode and the electrolyte (as cathode) overflowing from a quartz capillary.
 found in the ELCAD system that using acids as the electrolyte results in stronger emission than using salts and that the acid anions also affect the emission intensity.
As we all know, the emission intensity was dependent on the solution pH in ELCAD  and AC-EALD [17, 18].
Obviously, the LODs for LCGD are found to be comparable to those of similar ELCAD systems.