Chondrogenesis was induced in MSCs and ASCs at ELSC, MLSC, and LLSC using 3D pellet cultures containing 2.5 x [10.sup.5] cells cultured in AQmedia high-glucose DMEM (Sigma) supplemented with 1% FBS, antibiotics, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 100 [micro]M L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, 1 x [10.sup.-7] M dexamethasone, 1.25 mg/ml BSA, 40 [micro]g/ml L-proline, 5.4 [micro]g/ml linoleic acid, 1X ITS-X (Life Technologies), and 10 ng/ml TGF-[beta]3.
MSCs and ASCs at ELSC, MLSC, and LLSC were cultured in monolayer at a density of 3 x [10.sup.3] cells/[cm.sup.2] in osteogenic induction media containing [alpha]MEM supplemented with antibiotics, 10% FBS, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 2 mM Glutamax (Life Technologies), 100 [micro]M L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, 1 x [10.sup.-7] M dexamethasone, and 10 mM [beta]-glycerophosphate, with media changed every 3 days for up to 21 days.
MSCs and ASCs at ELSC, MLSC, and LLSC were cultured in monolayer at a density of 3 x [10.sup.3] cells/[cm.sup.2] and adipogenic induction media containing aMEM supplemented with 10% FBS, antibiotics, 2mM Glutamax, 1 x [10.sup.-8] M dexamethasone, 250 [micro]M IBMX, and 66 nM insulin, with media changed every 3 days for up to 21 days.
The CD profile of MSCs and ASCs was comparable at ELSC (Figure 1(a)), with an average of >95% of both cells expressing the positive markers CD73, CD90, and CD105.
The development of eLSC quality evaluation was based on the perspective of "quality is how the organization goes about achieving its objectives" and aimed to recognize and promote quality e- learning services through a systematic process to evaluate the quality of e-learning service.
As shown in Table 1, to apply for the Unit Certification, eLSC quality criteria 1, 2, 7 and 8 are required in the quality evaluation; to apply for the Course Certification, quality criteria 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8 are needed; and to apply for the Curriculum Certification all the eight criteria are required.
The eLSC quality evaluation employed a checklist-type evaluation form to identify the quality level of an organization's e-learning service.
Totally, 28 eLSC cases and 37 eLCC cases were examined in the present study.