The BET surface area is low, this is a characteristic of agricultural waste  FT-IR spectrum of EMDN (figure not shown) before dye adsorption shows strong adsorption bands at 1024 cm-1, 1232 cm-1, 1731 cm-1, 2907 cm-1 and 3338 cm-1 their assignment is as listed in Table 2.
FTIR spectral characteristics of EMDN before and after RhB adsorption
Figure 1 shows the SEM analysis of EMDN, the surface of EMDN before dye adsorption was smooth and with numerous pores.
2 depicts the effects of pH on RhB adsorption onto EMDN, adsorption percentage was observed to increase as the initial solution pH increased and goes to equilibrium after pH 6.
Effects of adsorbent dosage on RhB uptake onto EMDN.
Effects of contact time and initial adsorbate concentration on RhB uptake onto EMDN.
The E value obtained from the D-R model was less than 8 which suggests that the uptake of RhB onto EMDN was physical in nature.
32 mg/g and (Table 4) compares the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of EMDN with that of other adsorbents available in the literatures, EMDN was found to be very effective thus have higher adsorption capacity.
Parameters of Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R adsorption isotherm for the uptake of RhB onto EMDN.
Comparison of adsorption capacity of RhB onto EMDN with various adsorbents.
qe in the case of pseudo second order kinetics suggests that this model well describes the uptake of RhB onto EMDN.
6) did not pass through the origin, this further indicate that some degree of boundary layer diffusion also occurred during the uptake of RhB onto EMDN.