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In contrast, in both Tundra Enets as well as Nganasan, the etymologically related verb shows indeed the standard negation pattern of negative auxiliaries NEG.
Concerning the encoding of such predicatives, Tundra Nenets, Forest Enets and Tundra Enets do not require a free-standing copula, neither in the aorist nor the past tense:
By contrast, the Nenets and Enets languages have cliticized the inflected copula and the copula has been dropped which has resulted in the verbal-like encoding of nominal predicates.
In contrast, in both Forest Enets and Tundra Nenets, (17) the postposition is still free-standing.
Castren, the stem i- is used also in the Enets conjunctive (Castren 1864 : 516-517), whereby the length of the stem vowel (i-) is most likely caused by adherence of the conjunctive marker ji to the primary stem vowel i (i- < (see e.
Infinitive: ni-se Gerund: ni-fi' ENETS Sg Du Pl Indef.
The purpose of this paper is to review Hajdu's account of personal pronouns in Nenets and Enets (1983) and to focus on some peculiar details that are interesting from a wider typological perspective.
The second part of this paper addresses the Forest Enets pronoun borrowing case in more detail, as its implications for the study of language contact from both an Uralic but also a general perspective has several peculiarities which have not received as much attention as it actually deserves.
As stated in the introduction, neither Forest Enets nor either Nenets varieties shares 2P and 3P pronouns with Nganasan, which uses form cognate from Proto-Samoyedic and beyond (Hajdu 1983 : 105).
But Enets has a special suffix of preterital interrogative -sa-/-da-/-ta-/-ca- used in Nganasan and Selkup as a primal common normal suffix of preterite in affirmative clauses.
Yet, as seen from the above Enets textual example (3), it has nothing to do with expressing a preterite action but only with its evidential meaning.
The Enets material is very scanty and I cannot say anything concerning possible different rules for evidentials depending on the semantic type of the verb used.