The consequence of a higher ENPP
is twofold: more coalition governments and more unstable governments.
(i) Skin irritants increase ATP release in the skin in Zn deficiency, due to increased ATP release by KCs, impaired ATP hydrolysis by LCs, and impaired ENPP activity.
However, there are three groups of molecules that hydrolyze ATP, including ENTPDs, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (ENPPs), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) [87, 88].
The effective number of parties, whether in the form of the ENEP, or the ENPP
, offers information about concentration or fragmentation of analysed party system.
We emphasize ecologically relevant NPP (eNPP), which is the rate at which plant material is produced when animals (as well as plants) are growing and reproducing.
Soil properties are unlikely to have changed significantly over the past 5000 y, so current soil properties and eNPP are probably similar to those during the mid to late Holocene.
While the productivity hypothesis has been summarily dismissed as an explanation for Bergmann's rule (cf, Geist, 1987; Meiri et al., 2007), we believe that this important factor has been erroneously discounted because of a widespread misunderstanding of the global patterns of NPP, and the failure to recognize the advantages of eNPP over total annual NPP for understanding ecological and evolutionary patterns (Huston, 1994; Huston and Wolverton, 2009).
(18) For example, the dominant party of Botswana (BDP) increased its seat share between the 1999 and 2002 legislative elections, but the ENPP measure suggested that the party system in Botswana moved closer to a two-party format.
(5) Comoros was also an outlier for countries employing SMD Plurality rules with an ENEP of 14.9 and an ENPP of 5.28.