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(vii) Then EOFA is used again to determine the optimal BESS size by considering the SOC constraints using the objective function as shown in (3).
Performance Assessment of the Proposed EOFA. Fifteen benchmark test functions for unconstrained global optimization  are chosen in order to evaluate the performance of EOFA.
It can be seen from Table 2 that the performances for FA are the worst most of the time compared to GSA and EOFA. This can be caused by premature convergence after trapping in a local optimum.
Figure 7 shows the comparison of voltage profiles of PVDG bus for one week where 3 cases are included, namely, the system without PVDG and BESS, system with PVdG only, and system with PVDG and EOFA optimized BESS.
Besides, BESS optimized with GSA and FA is included in this work to validate the effectiveness of EOFA in BESS sizing.
The performances of EOFA, FA, and GSA in obtaining the optimal BESS size are discussed as follows.
EOFA keeps most of the voltage values within the range where the voltage values exceed 1.05 pu for a total of 78 hours out of 6552 hours (1.19%).
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- Eof Core System
- EOF gap