Los duenos de EPASA tienen una importante presencia en el sector de la construccion (Sandoval, 2010).
La posicion dominante en el mercado que actualmente tienen la Corporacion La Prensa, Editorial El Siglo & La Estrella y EPASA (prensaescrita); la Corporacion Medcom, el Grupo Mix, el grupo de Alfredo Prieto (radio y television abierta), y Televisora Nacional (television abierta) es el resultado de mucho anos, y en algunos casos mas de un siglo, de intrincadas relaciones con el poder economico y politico, con otros medios de comunicacion y otras industrias nacionales e internacionales.
TABLA 2 INDICADORES DE CONCENTRACION DEL MERCADO DE PERIODICOS BASADOS EN FRECUENCIA DE LECTURA (2010) Y CIRCULACION (2009 Y 2011) Share frecuencia Share Casa editorial Periodico de lectura * circulacion Corporacion La Prensa 45% 15% La Prensa Mi Diario 19% El Siglo & La Estrella 17% No disponible La Estrella El Siglo 21% EPASA Panama America 38% No disponible Critica 27% Dia a Dia No disponible PM 18% Total 100% 100% CR4 100 85 HHI 3 758 2 086 Noam 2 170 933 * Numero de adultos del mercado total que leen los periodicos de cada casa editorial con frecuencia de 4 a 5 veces por semana.
Fecundity and seed predation: 15 mature fruits per individual were collected prior to opening (in July and August 2008) from a total of 19 individuals, respectively, five from INP, seven from EPASA I and seven from EPASA II.
A total of 16 inflorescences from four individuals at INP, 18 inflorescences from six individuals at EPASA I, and 17 inflorescences from six individuals from EPASA II were observed.
Phenology: Leaf flushing was not observed from April to August at INP, and it was sparse (<30%) at EPASA I and II in the same period (Fig.
Fruit development started in March and extended to June at INP, while it was from April to August at EPASA I and II (Fig.
Fecundity and seed predation: Differences in overall fecundity were detected among the three sites; gross fecundity was higher at INP and EPASA II, and effective fecundity was higher at EPASA II (Table 1).
The delayed occurrence of leaf flushing at EPASA may be due to differences in microclimate between the studied sites (Saunders et al.
This parameter was higher in EPASA II than INP, because antagonistic interactions were more intense at the latter.
Then, we expected lower levels of pollination in EPASA II, because its intensive use of natural resources, but this was not observed.
In contrast, higher seed predation at INP and EPASA I is consistent with other studies in which herbivory was greater in habitats with more vegetation cover (Cascante et al.