In the nest boxes where EPY were not detected by Cervus all young were full-siblings in the clutches.
The previous study revealed no EPY in the Tengmalm's owl, though the paternity was investigated across extensive geographic region (Koopman et al.
Low number of EPY is usually detected in owl species.
Nevertheless, due to relatively short termed study and low annual variation in breeding density we are not able to directly test the relationship between the nesting density and occurrence of EPY but our results suggest that the EPP is not associated with the breeding density, because only one EPY occurred in the year of the highest breeding density (i.
At the universally supplemented barn where we expected encounter rates to be low, there was no difference in the proportion of EPY present in broods produced either before or after the food supplements were provided (EPY were present in 5/13 broods before versus 4/11 after universal supplementation, McNemar's test, P = 0.
Both the proportion of broods which contained at least one EPY and the average proportion of EPY per brood was higher when food supplements were present during the fertile period, although neither difference was significant.
Finally, our data are also equivocal in regard to the incomplete female knowledge hypothesis (Slagsvold and Lifjeld, 1997), because this also predicts supplemented females would show a greater frequency of EPY.