It was initially assumed that UPRE was located in the promoter of ERAD
genes such as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase synoviolin (HRD1) and ER degradation enhancing alphamannosidase-like protein 1 (EDEM1) [15,16].
Ultimately, no maize was delivered and Erad
referred the disagreement to an arbitrator.
was one of the five companies contracted by the NCPB to import maize during the 2004 drought.
The released ATF6[alpha] p50 fragment then travels to the nucleus and induces genes that are involved in protein folding and ERAD
Cresswell, "Are ERAD
components involved in cross-presentation?," Molecular Immunology, vol.
The released ATF6 cytosolic fragment p50 can translocate to the nucleus to increase the expression of numerous ER chaperone genes, such as BiP, ERAD
components, and XBP-1 mRNA [86, 92, 97].
The UPR, which is chiefly responsible for determining cellular death or survival responses in accordance with ER stress, is designed to restore ER homeostasis by activating ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD
), autophagy, and cell survival signals .
The collective activation of these signaling pathways causes suppression of mRNA translation to prevent further production of unfolded/misfolded proteins, refolding of misfolded proteins by upregulating ER chaperones, and induction of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD
) system to eliminate toxic protein aggregates .
Larsen and Nesbakken (2004) compare the CDA approach with an engineering model, ERAD
, whose inputs include engineering knowledge regarding technical and other features of housing stock, enabling estimation of energy demand for space heating.
A yaw rate stability control system is designed for a hybrid electric vehicle with electric rear axle drive (ERAD
) and a "hang on" center coupling device which can couple the front and rear axles for AWD capabilities.
Acting as quality control system, the ER exports correctly-folded proteins to the sites of actions and eliminates misfolded proteins through the ER-associated degradation (ERAD
) pathway, which disposes misfolded proteins from the ER to the cytosol for ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic degradation (Ruggiano et al.