Recent studies have found that several key proteins involved in the development of exosomes, such as ESCRT, are involved in the formation of MVBs and ILVs .
CSCs: Cancer stem cells MVBs: Multivesicular bodies ILVs: Luminal vesicles ESCRT: Endoprotein sorting and transferring device PM: Plasma membrane HSPs: Heat shock proteins PBMCs: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells DCs: Dendritic cells CICs: Cancer-initiating cells NSCs: Normal stem cells AML: Acute myelocytic leukemia MSCs: Mesenchymal stem cells CAFs: Cancer-associated fibroblasts HGF: Hepatocyte growth factors EMT: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition EVs: Extracellular vesicles CRC: Colorectal cancer TGF-beta: Transforming growth factor beta aSMase: Acid sphingomyelinase HSPGs: Heparin proteoglycans.
For example, ESCRT
complex recruits proteins into both exosomes and microvesicles .
This process was shown to be mediated by the chaperone hsc70 and the ESCRT
EEA1, early endosome antigen 1; ESCRT
, endosomal-sorting complex required for transport; HOPS, homotypic protein sorting; ILV, intraluminal vesicle; LAMP, lysosomal- associated membrane protein; NADPH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase; RILP, Rab-interacting lysosomal protein; vPS34, vacuolar protein-sorting 34.
Hurley, "Molecular mechanism of multi-vesicular body biogenesis by ESCRT
complexes," Nature, vol.
Molecular mechanism of multivesicular body biogenesis by ESCRT
During budding, HIV makes use of ESCRT
to cut the last connection between the virion coat and the cell surface, allowing it to exit the cell.
The biogenesis of exosomes requires different molecular components including the mechanisms dependent of the ESCRT
(endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery [97, 98] and lipid-dependent mechanisms [99,100].
Exosome biogenesis and cargo sorting involves the coordinated recruitment and employment of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT
) machinery and its associated proteins [47-49].
Stenmark, "The ESCRT
machinery in endosomal sorting of ubiquitylated membrane proteins," Nature, vol.
Some components can be selectively sorted into the vesicles, for example, sorting of proteins into the exosomes is depended on the ESCRT
(endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) machinery  or sphingolipids .