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ESEEMElectron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (electron paramagnetic resonance)
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Since the discovery of EPR in 1944, further refinements in the technique have led to variations such as pulse EPR, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy.
To identify the type of nucleus, the nuclear Zeeman frequency must be measured, which can be achieved by electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy or by electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy (ESEEM) (10).
For ESEEM and DEER experiments we used a 3-mm split-ring resonator (ER 4118X_MS3).