It is worth noting, however, that historically there was a belief that ESFT was very expensive.
Additionally, focus on external pressures and legal/ regulatory concerns as drivers of ESFT in NA and EU research also coincides with their focus on emissions reduction.
ESFT can be expensive (Spychalski 2011), and the added cost can put companies at risk in terms of competitiveness (Tesfay 2014).
This systematic review of ESFT literature shows a field that is beginning to mature, yet one that still has robust research opportunities.
1994; Wu and Dunn 1995), and researchers then began to ask, why don't all companies pursue ESFT (drivers), why don't companies that pursue ESFT do so more vigorously (activities), and what could make them do more (transformation)?
Based on the results of the SLR discussed thus far, the field of ESFT has significant room for development and opportunities for future research.
At a broader level, one thing that was apparent in reading many ESFT articles was the importance of researchers establishing the timeliness and consequence of investigating ESFT.
As discussed, drivers and facilitators of ESFT are viewed as the inputs.
Transformation processes are represented by the activities that organizations undertake to alter their ESFT behaviors.
The idea of external collaboration with supply chain members is a strong theme that emerged as a challenge to ESFT around 2010, highlighting the importance of more research in this area.
Understanding the relationship between ESFT and outcomes is also a strong topic of study, but the current research addresses this very descriptively.
This would also address the issue of examining ESFT practices from different levels of analysis (individual issues as well as broader supply chain implications) and could have theoretical implications for network performance.