ESLEAExploitation of Switched Lightpaths for E-Science Applications (UK)
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Thus, these negative peer interactions are a part of many early adolescents' regular experience with previous research showing that bullying peaks in middle school (Eslea et al., 2004).
Furthermore, indirect aggression seems to play a key role in processes of great social repercussion like bullying or mobbing (Bjorkqvist, Osterman, & Hjelt-Back, 1994; Bjorkqvist, Osterman, & Lagerspetz, 1994; Coyne, Archer, & Eslea, 2006; Garandeau & Cillessen, 2006).
Eslea and Rees (2001) reported that 30% of 7- and 9-year olds identified themselves as a victim of bullying in a Sheffield Bullying Project survey by the U.K.
Both in the school and in the workplace, factors of organizational climate and working arrangements can contribute to the incidence of bullying; for example, the existence and effectiveness of an anti-bullying policy in schools (Eslea & Smith, 1998; Smith & Shu, 2000), and quality of working environment in the workplace (Finarsen, Raknes, & Matthiesen, 1994; Zapf, Knorz, & Kulla, 1996).
Birkinshaw and Eslea (1998) also reported that pre-service teachers tend to rate physical bullying as most distressful for victims--followed by verbal and relational bullying--and were most likely to punish physical and verbal acts of bullying while taking no action in cases of relational bullying (Birkenshaw & Eslea, 1998).
La intervencion es principalmente grupal, aunque tambien se trabaja individualmente (Smith, Sharp, Eslea y Thompson, 2004).
A medida que se estabiliza el proyecto en el tiempo y se consigue la implicacion de los distintos sectores de la comunidad educativa, mas efecto minimizador de la incidencia del maltrato entre iguales se tiene (Smith, Sharp, Eslea y Thompson, 2004; Stevens, Van Oost y De Bourdeaudhuij, 2004).