The six pigs were equally assigned to the RFA or ESTD groups.
Esophageal ESTD was performed as shown in Figure 2.
RFA and ESTD procedures were successfully performed in all animals.
In the ESTD group, esophageal stricture developed at 2 weeks and was slightly aggravated at 3 weeks after ESTD, but no further aggravation occurred between 3 and 4 weeks (Figure 4).
Then, the other 7 cases were enrolled to form the ESTD group.
The comprehensive ESTD procedure was recorded in our published book , and the ESTD standard procedure was briefly presented as marking, submucosal injection, anal incision, oral incision, tunnel creation, and bilateral resection.
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ESTD, the following outcomes were analyzed between the two groups: resection time, size and area of the resected specimen, resection speed, en bloc resection rate, complete resection rate, recurrence rate, and rates of complications, including the muscularis propria (MP) damage, perforation, and postprocedural bleeding.
The detailed baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes of the lesions in the ESTD and ESD groups are shown in Table 1.