ETBF strain VPI 13784  was generously supplied by Professor Cynthia Sears, Baltimore, USA, and was used as a reference strain in this study.
TaqMan primer/probe sets were designed to amplify regions of the Bft gene of ETBF and the nusG gene of F.
We analyzed 36 paired samples of primary colorectal carcinomas and adjacent normal tissues to quantify ETBF. Serial dilution of genomic DNA from ETBF was used as standard.
fragilis toxin (BFT), produced only by enterotoxigenic strains (ETBF), binds to a specific intestinal epithelial cell receptor and induces several signal transduction pathways [45,46].
Elsewhere in the southwest Pacific Ocean, wahoo are retained as byproduct in the commercial pelagic longline fishery of New Caledonia, which targets species similar to those targeted by the ETBF. Catch of wahoo in this fishery is similar to the ETBF, with a mean annual catch of 25.1 t (SE 3.5) since 1997.
In the ETBF, catch, effort, and CPUE (catch per unit of effort) data for wahoo has been recorded in commercial logbooks since 1996 (AFMA (3)).
We investigated the prevalence of ETBF in 83 patients with idiopathic IBD, in 18 patients with routine culture-negative diarrhea, and in a control population of 69 outpatients (Table 1).
ETBF was cultured from four patients with IBD and two patients with diarrhea.
During the study, she and her colleagues observed that ETBF
uses tissue inflammation to cause colon cancer in a similar way that H.