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According to the practice recommended by the ETCCDI, we applied more flexible thresholds to determine (extremely) cold nights, warm days, and heat and cold waves (Klein Tank et al., 2009):
Approximation (2) was used to detect heat waves in summer (June, July, and August) and cold waves in winter (December, January, and February) according to the ETCCDI practice.
It is sensible to use a site-specific ETCCDI method that is much more flexible and, most importantly, is adaptable in the sense that it is able to detect also periods throughout the year that are warmer and/or colder than normal.
The ETCCDI method is eventually more practical to establish site-specific and more flexible thresholds and to detect heat and cold waves.
ETCCDI has suggested some thresholds for the extreme temperature indices such as frost days (daily minimum temperature below 0[degrees]C), summer days (daily maximum temperature above 25[degrees]C) and tropical nights (daily minimum temperature below 20[degrees]C).
(This reference period is used for consistency with other ETCCDI index products.) By construction, these indices have an average of 36.5 days over the reference period.
Using daily extreme temperature indices recommended by ETCCDI, this paper evaluated interannual variability and trends in warm and cold extreme events in Finland during 1961-2011.
Using daily gridded maximum and minimum temperature time series across Finland for the period 1961-2011, variations and trends in the fifteen temperature indices recommended by the ETCCDI were evaluated.
The joint working group CCI/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) (http://etccdi.pacificclimate.org/index.shtml) has 27 standardized and recommended climate extreme indices [2, 13-15].
This research utilized four of the precipitation indices as defined by ETCCDI (Table 1).
Out of the several temperature and precipitation indices defined by ETCCDI to characterize climate extremes, four precipitation indices (Table 1) were selected based on previous studies by  and expert opinion to characterize the duration, intensity, and frequency of precipitation over our study area.
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