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All three methods (SM, EIDM, and ETDM) have successfully derived the precipitation near the maximum precipitation center (i.e., the black square in Figure 6).
It has been shown in the above three cases that the ETDM proposed in the present study results in a more accurate RQPE than the traditional SM and EIDM do.
More importantly, there is also a further improvement for the ETDM to derive RQPE (relative to EIDM), with R increasing to 0.69 (it is 0.1 or 0.05 larger than that of the SM or EIDM, resp.), RMSE reducing to 2.3 mm, and RE decreasing to 56.2%.
More importantly, the ETDM further improves the accuracy of RQPE on the basis of EIDM so that the correlation coefficient increases to 0.51 followed by a slight decrease in RMSE and RE.
The above analysis evaluates the performance of the SM, EIDM, and ETDM to derive RQPE in an overall perspective.
More importantly, regardless of the summer case with large precipitation and high ET height or the winter case with small precipitation and low ET height, the new ETDM proposed here is able to derive an RQPE which is much closer to the observation in both magnitude and spatial distribution than the SM and EIDM methods.
To further confirm the performance of the new ETDM, three statistical variables (correlation coefficients, root-mean-squared error, and relative error) between RQPEs derived by the three methods (SM, EIDM, and ETDM) and observed precipitation are used to evaluate their performances to derive RQPE over three summer months (April to June 2017, with a total of 720 rainfall cases) and one winter month (December 2017, with a total of 50 rainfall cases).
Caption: Figure 3: Precipitations (mm) obtained from (a) observation, (b) SM method, (c) EIDM method, and (d) ETDM method at 2200 UTC 18 June 2016.
Caption: Figure 4: Precipitations (mm) obtained from (a) observation, (b) SM method, (c) EIDM method, and (d) ETDM method at 2200 UTC 1 June 2016.
Caption: Figure 6: Precipitations (mm) obtained from (a) observation, (b) SM method, (c) EIDM method, and (d) ETDM method at 0000 UTC 15 December 2017.
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