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The goals of our study were 1) to analyze the diets of associated yellowfin and skipjack tunas caught in the ETPO, and 2) to examine diet variability in terms of the area, season, capture time of day, and tuna size class and sex in order to assess the hypothesis that competitive trophic interactions form the basis for the association between these 2 tuna species.
The study area was located in the ETPO between 35[degrees] and 5[degrees]N, and from 140[degrees]W to the coastline (Fig.
In the ETPO, the tuna fleet uses 3 types of capture methods: sets associated with floating objects, sets associated with dolphins, and sets associated with free-swimming schools of tuna that are not associated with floating objects or with larger marine species.
Tunas are captured primarily during the day in the ETPO (Ortega-Garcia et al., 1992).
The diets of both tuna species are consistent with previous reports for the ETPO; however, we found fewer prey species in the fish stomachs than those of previous studies (Galvan-Magana, 1988; Roman-Reyes, 2000).
This is in agreement with previous reports for this species in the ETPO (Alverson, 1963; Galvan-Magana, 1988, 1999; Roman-Reyes, 2000, 2005; Olson et al., 2014).
The increment on the storm and hurricane activity over the ETPO, as compared with the two previous years, can be partially related to a large area of low values in a vertical shear (wind variation with altitude).
The three wind jets have an intense effect on the temperature of the upper layer of the ETPO and, consequently, on the distribution of nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton off the Pacific coast of Central America.
In these years the SST in the central and eastern part of the ETPO area becomes anomalously high.
The study area is in the Pacific Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which migrates northward in ENSO events, covering practically the totality of the ETPO. The invasion of anomalously warm water in the surface layers produces changes in the regional conditions (Robles and Christensen, 1983; Gallegos et al., 1984).
The aim of this paper is to show the effect of ENSO on ETPO upwelling areas such as the Gulf of Tehuantepec in Mexico and the Gulf of Papagayo in Costa Rica.
In order to assess the effect of ENSO 1997-98 on the ETPO, SST anomaly maps derived from AVHRR images were compared for the winters prior to, during, and after the 1997-98 El Nio event.
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