Furthermore, humoral and cellular immune mechanisms also play their active role in eradicating infectious agents.1,2 However, in critically ill patients, host defences may be impaired and aid in establishing infection.3 Moreover, in these patients the endotracheal tube (ETT
) not only impairs mucocilliary clearance and cough reflex, but also facilitates bacteria entry into the lower respiratory tract by permitting leakage of secretions around the ETT
Gestational trophoblastic tumors include 3 well-defined pathologic entities: gestational choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT
In our study, Open Endotracheal Suctioning (OES) was done in those intubated with conventional ETTs
. During OES the patient was temporarily removed from the ventilator while ETS is performed.
with an ID of 5.0 mm have been used in patients with an average height of 122 cm and age of 6.8 years (6).
(22) on manikins showed that ETTs
loaded with a hockey stick (45[degrees] bend angle) did not affect the attempt time compared with no stylet use in a simulated difficult airway.
The simulation device was modified with an engineered heat-regulated tracheal feature with a temperature sensor probe to maintain the ex vivo ETTs
at 37[degrees]C (body temperature) while conducting the research.
Therefore, the use of ETTs
is more reliable for security and management of the airway .
Fortunately cases of DTTI can be managed successfully if smaller-size tubes are used or a malleable guide is introduced into the ETT
prior to its insertion through the glottic opening.
Methods devised toreduce nasotracheal complications include the use of lubricants (saline, water-soluble lignocaine gel), vasoconstrictor (oxymetazoline, cocaine, lignocaine-epinephrine/phenylephrine), lower size ETTs
and warming nasotracheal tubes, although, some of these drugs may be associated with serious complications.
A prospective, cross-sectional study was done on intubated neonates in the NICU at Universitas Academic Hospital, Bloemfontein, over a 3-month period, to determine the position of ETTs
by using BUS.
 was to compare the performance of two types of ETTs
when used in conjunction with the GlideScope, a video laryngoscope.