Charts 1 and 2 compare productivity in Portugal with the employment-weighted average for G-7 countries, a proxy for globally developed markets, and the average for EU core countries.
LP growth was 3.8 per cent per year on average, significantly above that of the G7 countries and the EU core (2.2 per cent) (Table 1).
As a consequence, LP in Portugal diverged up to 2003 with the EU core and up to 2007 with G7.
Overall LP divergence is evident since 1992, initially in trade and market services, and in the 2000s even LP growth in manufacturing became lower than in the EU core (Sondermann, 2012).
"This is part of our policy to engage with young people, support their initiatives while sharing with them the EU core
The ACEA especially finds fault with the Commission for failing to select any road projects in the transport corridors that will make up the EU core
network (of the 101 pre-identified sections, 75 concern rail and 26 ports, inland waterways and motorways of the sea).
Single market and/or customs unions are granted to 'second ring' partners, some of which may be candidate countries expecting to enter the EU core
(e.g., Turkey), or unwilling to adopt the EU political institutions and procedures but wishing to benefit from the European Single Market (e.g., Switzerland).
Instead, they are actually "near-shored"--that is, off-shored to a nearby area--within the old EU core
or to new member states.
For the group of industries with high educational intensity, the shares in total employment are surprisingly similar among the new CEE member states and Austria, but also distinctively below the average of the EU core countries (table 3).
Let us mention only the high productivity growth performance of the Eastern European countries and also Austria when compared with the EU core economies.
Although there is a wide variety of patterns, the striking feature is that the productivity growth differential between most of the Eastern European countries and the EU core countries is particularly high in the more technology intensive sectors like Machinery, Electrical and optical equipment and Transport equipment.
Introducing an EU core
curriculum for training all fisheries inspectors, and using compatible real-time communication technologies EU wide, would also help improve fairness, it adds.