EU15European Union of 15 Countries
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We show that spatial conglomeration from capital cities matters for TFP creation and R&D activity, especially in the EU15 regions.
In the 2009 world competitiveness top, few EU15 Member States ranked excellent positions: 1st - Finland, 3rd - Sweden, 4th - Denmark and 8th - Netherland.
Data for 2011 show that EU15 GHG emissions dropped by 3.6% and EU27 emissions by 2.7% in 2011 compared with 2010.
Our empirical results support the hypothesis that EU15 and EU12 banks engaged in moral hazard behavior during the sample period.
For Norway, a substantial increase in immigration from the new EU Member States (EU12) has also taken place over the last years, but a high number of immigrants are also coming from the EU15 and the rest of the world.
In what the EU15 trade with the developing and emerging economies actually differ from its trade patterns with advanced economies (in terms of production stage, technology level, quality range)?
ECTA believes that Italy is falling behind in broadband penetration because, due to inefficient regulation, the incumbent operator Telecom Italia holds 72% market share in Italy's broadband market, which is the largest of any one company within the EU15 countries.
However, it could have been a problem had Switzerland been forced to open its labour markets immediately after these countries joined the EU, while the old EU15 countries continued to enjoy a transition period of several years.
The CER also reports an increase in passenger traffic - expressed in passenger/km - though with more striking contrasts: + 0.1% in the third quarter of 2011 in the EU15 and +2% in central and eastern Europe.
This collective commitment has been translated into differentiated national emission targets for each EU15 member state, which are binding under EU law.