receptor A10 is a promising drug target potentially useful for breast cancers including triple negative breast cancers.
Other ligands, ephrin
A2 and ephrin
A5, are expressed in dLGN and seem to match the gradient of ephrin
receptors in the retinal axons, based on their nasal or temporal origin.
It may be acting to (1) constrain the axons in the dorsal funiculus during decent, (2) regulate branching out of the dorsal funiculus, (3) restrict the axons to one side of the grey matter once they have entered the grey matter, (4) or be involved in fine-tuning the guidance as the axons find the interneurons or (5) involved in the topographic patterning of the CST--meaning that the axons behave differently depending on the relative concentration of EphA4 and ephrin
ligand at different levels of the spinal cord.
We laid out the hypothesis five years ago that the ephrins
were also receptors and that they transduce what we call the `reverse' signal, and we also proposed that the `reverse' signal was important in axon pathfinding," Dr.
46) This Ephrin
signaling antagonizes transduction of FGF signaling through p120RasGAP, (48) resulting in the outer cells that express Otx.
The most significantly affected canonical pathways across the entire dataset containing the 1062 genes deregulated by Rhodiola were the following: (a) communication between the innate and adaptive immune cells, (b) eNOS signaling, (c) altered T and B cell signaling in rheumatoid arthritis, (d) axonal guidance signaling, (e) G-protein coupled receptor signaling, (f) glutamate receptor signaling, (g) ephrin
receptor signaling, (h) cAMP-mediated signaling, and (i) atherosclerosis signaling pathways.
Although the percentage of amino acid variation in the G protein is higher than that in all other NiV proteins (except the P protein), it is not surprising that the residues implicated in Ephrin
B2 and B3 binding are conserved across the genotypes (27,28).
The researchers found that several versions of a protein called ephrin
had the same effect on satellite cells: the cells that touch stripes made of ephrin
immediately turn around and travel in a new direction.
Although the body contains a vast array of different classes of receptors and ligands, Henkemeyer and his team have been working to learn how a particular group of such molecules--Eph receptors and ephrin
ligands--communicate biochemical signals between two cells.
Fortunately, previous studies have revealed many tumor antigens expressed on lung cancer cells that can be potential targets,[sup], including glycoproteins such as epithelial cell adhesion molecules, carcinoembryonic antigen, mucins, podoplanin (PDPN), and tumor-associated glycoprotein 72; growth and differentiation signaling receptors such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2, HER3, hepatocyte growth factor receptor, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, ephrin
receptor A3, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1; and stromal and extracellular matrix antigens such as fibroblast activation protein.
We will use DNA origami/ephrin
ligand nanoclusters to investigate whether the spatial organization and mechanical properties of ephrin
ligand assemblies impact Eph receptor function and contribute to generating diversity in the pathway.
Ligation of epha2 by ephrin
a1-fc inhibits pancreatic adenocarcinoma cellular invasiveness.