Other ligands, ephrin A2 and ephrin A5, are expressed in dLGN and seem to match the gradient of ephrin receptors in the retinal axons, based on their nasal or temporal origin.
Castellani, Yue, Gao, Zhou, and Bolz (1998) studied the selective effects of ephrin A5 on cortex assembly within the layers.
It may be acting to (1) constrain the axons in the dorsal funiculus during decent, (2) regulate branching out of the dorsal funiculus, (3) restrict the axons to one side of the grey matter once they have entered the grey matter, (4) or be involved in fine-tuning the guidance as the axons find the interneurons or (5) involved in the topographic patterning of the CST--meaning that the axons behave differently depending on the relative concentration of EphA4 and ephrin ligand at different levels of the spinal cord.
It must recognise an ephrin ligand in its immediate environment.
The most significantly affected canonical pathways across the entire dataset containing the 1062 genes deregulated by Rhodiola were the following: (a) communication between the innate and adaptive immune cells, (b) eNOS signaling, (c) altered T and B cell signaling in rheumatoid arthritis, (d) axonal guidance signaling, (e) G-protein coupled receptor signaling, (f) glutamate receptor signaling, (g) ephrin receptor signaling, (h) cAMP-mediated signaling, and (i) atherosclerosis signaling pathways.
8 and Table 8), ephrin receptor, and cAMP-mediated pathways.
Researchers then labeled the traditional concept of the receptor-mediated signal as a "forward" signal to distinguish it from the "reverse" signal that the ephrin ligands transduce into their own cell.
When I first came to UT Southwestern to set up my laboratory, we realized that the Eph receptors and ephrins are important partners in axon pathfinding.
A TaqMan [R] probe/primer set was designed for real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for the detection and quantification of gene expression of all currently known human members of the Eph receptor and ephrin family except for EphA5 and EphA10.
EPH RECEPTOR AND EPHRIN GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE IN HEALTHY HUMAN TISSUE
Harvard College (Cambridge, MA) has patented a cytoplasmic protein, designated PDZ-RGS3, which binds B ephrins
through a PDZ domain, and has a regulator of heterotrimeric G protein signaling (RGS) domain.
The Eph-family ligands are called ephrins
(for Eph receptor interacting proteins).