Several essays, particularly those that dealt with the emergence of the 'evo-devo
' paradigm (e.g., Chapter 9) were long, comprehensive expositions of relatively specific problems.
As the field of evo-devo
matured in the context of evolutionary biology, it inspired an analogous field in the context of evolutionary computation: artificial development.
De todo lo discutido cabe concluir que inferir de la presencia de dos secuencias genicas identicas (en este caso, la de FOXP2) la existencia de dos fenotipos iguales (en este caso, una facultad del lenguaje plena) en dos especies diferentes solo casaria con los presupuestos de la sintesis evolutiva neodarwinista, para la que la variacion de los caracteres fenotipicos es una consecuencia de la variacion de las frecuencias genicas presentes en las poblaciones (Muller, 2007: 945) y, si se quiere, con las corrientes evo-devo
Several arguments are given to justify a new theory, mainly based on present interpretation of different phenomena such as endosymbiosis, reticulate evolution, the modern synthesis of embryonic development and evolution (evo-devo
), phenotypic plasticity, epigenesis, evolvability, and the several evolutionary mechanisms: natural selection, gene flow, genetic drift, fusion of genomes and gene fragments, epigenetic mechanisms such as methylation of DNA, tool kits, regulatory cis-elements, hybridization and polyploidy.
While concepts such as homology, analogy, evolutionary game theory, strategy, niche construction, (positive) frequency-dependence, group selection, punctuated equilibrium, gene-meme co-evolution, and so on make their appearance from time to time, others that are important in contemporary evolutionary theory, such as life history theory, and some that evolutionists currently struggle with, such as the relationship between evolution and development (evo-devo
) do not.
These alternatives range from horizontal gene transfers and hybridization to developmental forces (or "evo-devo
") and epigenetic modification.
Mais recentemente, outra area de pesquisa adjacente, a "biologia evolucionaria desenvolvimentista" (evo-devo
, do ingles evolutionary developmental biology), contribuiu para alargar o conceito DOHaD por meio de novos conhecimentos.
The exploding research program known as "evo-devo
," for instance, has wed evolutionary theory to embryology and genetics, helping to unravel the evolution of organisms' structures and forms.
A straight line runs from Goethe's aesthetic morphologies to Ernst Haeckel's plates, to D'Arcy Thompson's amazing On Growth and Form, to Gyorgy Kepes' exhibitions at MIT in the '50s, to Frei Otto and modern day evo-devo
. A line that constantly intertwines design and genesis, order and contingency, necessity and chance.
The changing role of the embryo in evolutionary thought; roots of evo-devo
") biology has its origin in the comparative embryology of the nineteenth century in the work of von Baer (1828) and Haeckel (1866, 1896), whose "laws" of embryonic divergence and recapitulation were put forward as being generally indicative of phylogeny.