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References in periodicals archive ?
The treatments were arranged in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, corresponding to the exchangeable sodium percentages in the soil (ESP): 8.84, 12.55, 18.80, 28.80 and 38.80% and the sheep manure doses (MD) of 0, 5, 10 and 15% based on volume.
Exchangeable sodium content was analyzed to calculate exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) and was extracted with ammonium acetate-ammonium hydroxide (N[H.sub.4]OAc-N[H.sub.4] OH) (pH9) and measured by a flame spectrophotometer [36].
1 displays the ratio of air permeability to water permeability as a function of both exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) and exchangeable potassium percentage (EPP).
Sodium status as the ratio of exchangeable sodium cations are determined by the total cation exchange capacity, the term is used in this case, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) is.
Frenkel H, Goertzen JO, Rhoades JD (1978) Effects of clay type and content, exchangeable sodium percentage and electrolyte concentration on clay dispersion and soil hydraulic conductivity.
Two parameters used to evaluate the potential sodicity of soil are the sodium adsorption ratio and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP).
Site pH Ca Mg K Na CEC cmol(P+)/kg-soil Hearth-Lichen Community 1 6.4 15.4 6.3 0.6 0.4 22.6 2 6.5 14.1 4.6 0.4 0.4 19.5 3 6.6 13.4 5.7 0.3 0.4 19.8 4 6.9 6.7 1.9 0.2 0.5 9.3 Stable Dune Community 5 6.6 7.2 1.5 0.2 0.3 9.2 6 6.4 5.0 0.4 0.1 0.2 5.7 Open Dune Community 7 6.5 6.2 0.6 0.1 0.2 7.1 8 6.7 4.4 0.7 0.1 0.2 5.4 Strand Community 9 6.6 6.9 1.0 0.1 1.5 9.6 Site Organic Matter ESP % % Hearth-Lichen Community 1 22.7 1.8 2 18.1 2.1 3 23.4 2.0 4 2.3 5.4 Stable Dune Community 5 2.4 3.3 6 0.1 3.5 Open Dune Community 7 0.4 2.8 8 0.2 3.7 Strand Community 9 0.1 15.6 ESP = Exchangeable Sodium Percentage = Na .100/CEC.
The three-dimensional surfaces to the left are a function of the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) and solution concentration ([mmol.sub.c]/L), and the surfaces to the right are produced from the application of K at an effective ESP (EDP; Eqn 5); model parameters are shown in Table 4.
The results of exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) were similar to those of [Na.sup.+], and ISF differed from the treatments irrigated with SRW and not irrigated.
Soils pH Ca[Cl.sub.2] CSe P K dS[m.sup.-1] mg d[m.sup.-3] Saline-sodic 10.7 16.8 5.8 0.20 Non-saline 8.0 0.8 8.2 0.98 Sand Silt Clay Moisture g [kg.sup.-1] at 0.33Mp g[cm.sup.-3] Saline-sodic 622 140 238 66.9 Non-saline 775 67 158 69.4 Soils Na Ca Mg H+Al ESP -[cmol.sub.c] % [dm.sup.-3] Saline-sodic 11.38 0.5 0.6 0.0 89.0 Non-saline 1.19 4.0 2.9 0.0 12.0 DS Dp Saline-sodic 1.45 2.64 Non-saline 1.48 2.61 ESP- exchangeable sodium percentage; SD- soil density; PD- particle density; CSe- conductivity of the saturation extract.
Formula Models Row Y = a.X + b Linear 1 Y = a.lnX + b Logarithmic 2 Y = a.1/X + b Inverse 3 Y = [ax.sup.2] + bX + c Quadratic 4 Y = [ax.sup.3] + [bX.sup.2] + cX + d Cubic 5 Y = [bX.sup.a] Power 6 Y = [b.a.sup.X] Compound 7 Y = [e.sup.a/X + b) S 8 Y = 1/(1/u + (b.[a.sup.X])) Logistic 9 Y = [e.sup.aX+b] Growth 10 Y = b.[e.sup.a.X] Exponential 11 Table 5: Exchangeable Sodium Percentage in different depth with irrigation alternations before and after of doing irrigation in pilot No.1.
Excessive sodium ions on the exchange complex enhance swelling and dispersion which may have profound effects on soil structural stability of the pore matrix and decrease of permeability (Keren and Ben-Hur 2003) with decrease in electrolyte concentration particularly with increased exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) or SAR.