The first variable, family coping with CP was operationally defined by mean scores on groups of family coping variables from the modified form of the F-COPES that emerged following data analysis.
The research question was first addressed by using exploratory factor analysis (FA) approach (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Black, 1995) to surface underlying factors among the 30 items of the modified form of the F-COPES.
The scale membership, item means, standard deviations, and factor loading coefficients for the modified form of the F-COPES are shown in Table 2.
Scale Membership, Item Means, Standard Deviations, and Factor Pattern Loading Coefficients of the Modified Form of the F-COPES
Factors consisting primarily of items from the modified form of the F-COPES included positive family appraisal, support from concerned others, spiritual support, personal growth and advocacy, and positive social interaction.
In addition, the FA technique was also used to increase the construct validity of the modified form of the F-COPES (Clark & Watson, 1995).
Tables 4 and 5 illustrate the results of the IOFS and F-COPES.
Although the parents of children with a tracheostomy and gastrostomy scored high on the IOF Subscale--Disruption of Social Relations, they also scored high on the F-COPES subscale, Acquiring Social Support, indicating the family's ability to seek out community resources and accept help from others.
F-COPES Scores: Primary Caregivers (N-18) Alpha Subscales M SD Range Coefficient Passive Appraisal 15.