PAL, phenylalanine ammonia lyase; CNL, cinnamoyl-CoA ligase; C4H, cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase; C3H, p-coumaroyl ester 3-hydroxylase; COMT, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase; 4CL, 4-coumaroyl:CoAligase; CHS, chalcone synthase; CHR, chalcone reductase; CHI, chalcone isomerase; F3H
, flavanone 3-hydroxylase; F3'H, flavanone 3'-hydroxylase; FLS, flavonol synthase; UFGT, UDP glucose: flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase; FLS, flavonol synthase; DFR, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase; LAR, leucoanthocyanidin reductase; ANS, anthocyanidin synthase; ANR, anthocyanidin reductase; IFS, isoflavone synthase; IOMT, isoflavone O-methyltransferase; I3'H, isoflavone 3'-hydroxylase; I2'H, isoflavone 2'-hydroxylase.
(2012, 2013) found that the inhibition of Pro-Ca on enzyme activities of 2-ODDs flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene (F3H), flavonol synthase gene (FLS) and anthocyanidin synthase gene (ANS) in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in the skin of apples might lead to a decrease in anthocyanin content.
lactiflora, including phenylalanine ammonialyase gene (PAL), chalcone synthase gene (CHS), chalcone isomerase gene (CHI), F3H, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene (F3'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene (DFR), ANS, UDP-glucoside (UGT): flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase gene (F3GT) as well as flavonoid 5-O-glucosyltransferase gene (F5GT) and methyl transferase gene (MT).
(2006) proposed that F3H and FLS, the two 2-ODDs genes, were inhibited in young grapevine leaves, flowers, and berries after Pro-Ca treatment.
(1.) The Vought F8U Crusader, McDonnell F3H
Demon, Douglas F4D Skyray, Grumman F11F Tiger, McDonnell F4H Phantom, North American A5A (later RA-5C) Vigilante, and the Douglas A3D Skywarrior.
FLS belongs to a growing family of 2-oxoglutaratedependent dioxygenase (2-ODD) nonheme ferrous enzymes that also includes the flavonoid enzymes flavanone-3[beta]-hydroxylase (F3H), flavone synthase I (FS I), and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LDOX) .
Abbreviations HPCL: High-performance liquid chromatography CGA: Chlorogenic acid PAL: Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase C4H: Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase 4CL: 4-coumaroyl:CoA-ligase CHI: Chalcone isomerase F3H: Flavone 3-hydroxylase F3'H: Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase F3'5'H: Flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase FLS: Flavonol synthase ANS: Anthocyanidin synthase.
Additional major genes in the pathway include chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4- reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS).
The cDNAs of PAL, CHS, F3H, DFR and the 18S rRNA of the Vanda hybrids, designated as Va-PAL1, Va-CHS1, Va-F3H1, Va- DFR1 and Va-18S rRNA, respectively were used as templates for semiquantitative RT-PCR using the following primer sets: (as the internal reference).
The higher expression of this gene in the reproductive parts is consistent with other plants cultivated for their flowers, such as Antirrhinum majus, Dahlia variabilis, Dianthus caryophyllus, and Petunia hybrida, in which it has been reported that F3H expression was more long petal) (Mato et al., 2000).