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FAD2Fatty Acid Desaturation 2
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Finally, the sequences of Jatropha cinerea submitted to the GenBank provide basic information to develop other studies to extent the knowledge and to comprehend the function, expression pattern and variability of genes involved not only in the synthesis of oleic and linoleic acids that will allow in a future to improve the content of oleic acid for species such as Jatropha cinerea that lives in harsh environments as the Sonoran Desert, characterized with high temperatures and saline soils but also to study the genes such as FAD2 in Jatropha cinerea, that is suggested to play a role in the resistance to abiotic stress such as salinity and cold in other plant species.
In this study, 5 fatty acid desaturase-encoding genes were found, including 3 acyl-lipid desaturase genes (FAD2, FAD7) and 2 acyl-ACP desaturase genes.
Deshpande et al., "The FAD2 gene family of soybean: insights into the structural and functional divergence of a paleopolyploid genome," Crop Science, vol.
Previous investigations have confirmed that, desaturation of oleic acid (18C:1) to linoleic acid (18C:2) or linolenate acid (18C:3) is catalyzed by fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) and FAD3, respectively (Sperling and Heinz,1993; Okuley et al., 1994).
(Indian mustard) line by antisense suppression of the fad2 gene.
FAD2 is an enzyme that changes oleic acid, another unsaturated fatty acid, into linoleic acid which is necessary for normal growth of mammals.
Genetic modification (GM) aimed at regulating the FAD2 expression has been applied to produce oils with a higher C18:1 in soybeans [15-19].
Spatial and temporal regulation of three different microsomal oleate desaturase genes (FAD2) from normal and high-oleic varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).
(2001) hypothesized the alteration of a single gene affecting FAD2 in the first mutant type, and two genes in the second mutant type, one of them affecting FAD2 and the other one probably affecting another fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme.
Marker analysis supported that fad2 (microsomal oleic acid desaturase) was the gene altered in the mutants (Schierholt et al., 2000).
Both mutants are allelic at the mutated locus (Schierholt et al., 2001) and have been described as one copy of the oleic acid desaturase gene (fad2; Schierholt et al., 2000).
Since only the seed fatty acid composition is significantly changed, the mutation likely is affecting a seed microsomal delta 12 desaturase (fad2).