AGID was performed as per the procedure described in OIE manual (2013) for Infectious Bursal Disease with minor modifications for detection of FAdV antigen in suspected samples.
H&E staining of formalin fixed liver tissue sections revealed intranuclear basophilic inclusion bodies indicative of FAdV infection (Fig.
The liver suspensions and CEL propagated cell culture fluid were tested by AGID employing the hyperimmune sera raised with the FAdV Type 4 vaccine.
Sequence analysis of Fowl adenovirus hexon gene with Blast programme (NCBI) revealed identity with FAdV 2 (1 samples), FAdV 4 (3 samples), FAdV 8 (1 samples) and FAdV 11 (19 samples).
Samantha Eknayake (2009) also discussed a similar pathogenesis pattern of FAdV in SPF chicks.
As per the findings of our study, PCR analysis provided accurate detection of FAdV in both liver samples and cell culture fluid.
Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on direct sequencing of hypervariable region of hexon gene grouped these sequences into two distinct groups, three FAdV isolates were clustered together belonging to fowl adenoviruses C species and serotype FAdV-4.
Newcastle disease virus, avian influenza virus, Infectious bronchitis virus, Infectious bursal Disease Virus and FAdV from similar premises are isolated.
Protection by maternally derived antibodies is an effective approach to protect young birds against FAdV (Toro et al., 2002).
Selective pressure on the partial sequence of hexon protein of Pakistani FAdV-11 strains/isolates and other FAdV strains in serotype 11 was performed using synonymous non-synonymous analysis program (SNAP) (http://hcv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/SNAP/SNAP.html).
To characterize the molecular epidemiology of recent field FAdV isolates, direct sequencing of hexon gene was performed.