Unlike some methodologies in which participants are not commonly represented in the decision-making process (Chio and Fandt
2007; Goodhart et al.
Segundo Ferris, Russ e Fandt
(1989), as reacoes adversas a politica demonstradas pelos membros organizacionais devem-se ao fato de esta ser um elemento estressor para o ambiente de trabalho.
Businesses that don't change disappear (Lewis, Goodman, and Fandt
Researchers exploring employees' willingness to engage in political behaviour at work have found an association with self-esteem, Machiavellianism, Need for Power, and Locus of Control (Biberman, 1985; Ferris, Russ, & Fandt
, 1989), but again, there have been few longitudinal investigations of causal relationships.
Frequently, successful firms can afford to pay more, but high pay can also produce economic success (Lewis, Goodman, & Fandt
Effective management of change is required but difficult, because change is risky (Bettis & Hitt, 1995; Hitt, Keats, & DeMarie, 1998; and Lewis, Goodman, & Fandt
For example, a study by Fandt
, Labig, and Urich (1990) showed that managers differentially punish subordinates depending on the degree to which they liked the subordinates.
On the other hand, Hirsch (1997) found no significant gender differences in student perceptions of public safety policy, and Mitchell and Fandt
(1995) discovered no significant differences in self-esteem scores between male and female college students.
, P.M., Management: Challenges in the 21st Century, West Publishing Co., St.
Others have applied a strategy typology to a particular sub-area of HRM such as staff appraisal (Dunphy and Hackman, 1988) or career development (Fandt
Politics has been hypothesized to be the inevitable result of functional differentiation (March and Simon, 1958), decentralization (Pfeffer, 1981), centralization (Eisenhardt and Bourgeois, 1988), organic structure in subunits (House, 1989), or a plethora of needs, attitudes, and dispositions at the individual level as these find expression or frustration in organizational arrangements (McClelland, 1961; Mintzberg, 1983; House, 1989; Ferris, Russ, and Fandt
entitled "Politics in Organizations" which appears in Impression Management in the Organization (edited by Robert Giacalone and Paul Rosenfeld, and published by Lawrence Erlbaum, 1989) also contributed to this area of study.