In contrast, following coculture with MCF7 cells, the expression of several genes in obASCs was enhanced compared to lnASCs: NG2 (2.3-fold in obASCs and 1.2-fold in lnASCs, P <0.001), [alpha]-SMA (2.1-fold in obASCs and 1.0-fold in lnASCs, P <0.01), VEGF (3.2-fold in obASCs and 1.3-fold in lnASCs, P <0.01), FAP1
(3.2-fold in obASCs and 1.3 fold in lnASCs, P <0.001), and FSP (3.1-fold in obASCs and 0.9-fold in lnASCs, P <0.001; Figure 2).
Noel and researchers at the Salk Institute used a variety of techniques -- including X-ray crystallography and biochemistry -- to characterize the structures of the FAP1
, FAP2 and FAP3 proteins, and to determine that the proteins bind fatty acids.
The flyash used in FAP1, a Class F flyash (ASTM C618 specifications) (ASTM 2003) denoted as FA1, was obtained from Gladstone Power Station in south-east Queensland.
The calcium contents of the FAP1 and FAF2 samples were 75 [+ or -] 5 and 82 [+ or -] 5 g/kg, respectively.
The lime equivalent of 2 major components of FAP1
, FA1 and QCL cement, were 4.9 and 85%, respectively.
The same phenomenon was also observed in palmitic acid content of soybean lines with fap1 fap1
fap3 fap3 genotypes (Horejsi et al., 1994) and in the stearic content of soybean lines with major allele fas (Lundeen et al., 1987).
It has been shown that fap1
segregates independently of fan (Nickell et al., 1991), but it is not known if fapx segregates independently of fan.
The parent lines YA7343Z006 and AX8154A370 had the fap1 fap1
fap3 fap3 genotype for reduced palmitate, and the parent cultivars 9282 and 9322 had the fan1(A5) fan1(A5) fan2 fan2 genotype for reduced linolenate.
C1726 has the fap1
allele and A22 the fap3 allele for reduced palmitate.
In an independent study at Iowa State University, the elevated palmitate content in A27 was found to be under separate genetic control from A25 and from fap1
, fap2, fap3, and fap4 (Stoltzfus et al., 2000).
Genotypic evaluation of 50 [F.sub.2] soybean plants from the cross of C1726 (fap1 fap1
Fap5 Fap5) x A27 (Fap1 Fap1
fap5 fap5) based on the model of two alleles for altered palmitate content with additive gene action at independent loci.
Genetic analyses of mutant lines revealed that recessive alleles control low palmitic acid levels: fap1
in C1726 (Erickson et al., 1988) and fap3 in A22 (Fehr et al., 1991).