Department of Energy Vehicle Systems projects: CoolSim, CoolCalc, and FASTSim. The process accounts for vehicle use patterns, vehicle type, environment conditions, vehicle population, and A/C system efficiency.
FASTSim - Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator
et al., "FASTSim: A Model to Estimate Vehicle Efficiency, Cost and Performance," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0973, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0973.
In order to validate the algorithm, the numerical results have been compared with the most used methods (FASTSIM and Polach) considering at first simple cases and then the simulation of a vehicle on real track.
These exponents are obtained using a trial and error approach in order to achieve, with the proposed algorithm, results similar to the FASTSIM  and Polach's  algorithms.
The Simpack equivalent elastic contact model is used to evaluate the contact point position and the normal load, while the friction forces are evaluated comparing three different algorithms: FASTSIM (considering a discretization of the contact area equal to 50x50), Polach, and the one proposed in this work.
[25.] Analytical Modeling Linking FASTSim
and ADOPT Software Tools.
V we shall be able to conclude that the results of presented model for tangential forces caused by longitudinal and lateral creepages for constant temperature-dependent coefficient of friction on wheel/rail contact f are nearly equal results of Kalker's programme FASTSIM
Without our proposed energy reallocation model, in order to obtain more realistic estimates of the GHG emissions, FASTSim simulations would need to be repeated at different states of the battery at the beginning of each trip depending on the battery state in the previous trip, and whether or not the vehicle performed any charging in between the trips.
For any given vehicle i and trip/, FASTSim calculates and outputs estimates of the amounts of gas ([G.sub.ij], gal) and electric energy ([E.sub.ij], kWh) that were consumed during the trip.
The amount of material removed due to the wear process is calculated in a modified FASTSIM algorithm.
In order to evaluate the tangential pressure distribution on the contact area, the FASTSIM algorithm discretizes the contact region along both the x and the y direction.