The following year, the recommendations of the FBVE culminated in the passage of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act.
The FBVE stated that "other things being equal" veterans should be granted their first choice of training program "provided they were capable of carrying it on successfully." The act empowered FBVE advisors to deny any course requested by a veteran if they deemed the course of study to be "non-feasible," not directed towards a key sector of the economy, or otherwise not likely to lead to employment.
(15) Although a few New York unions embraced the reeducation program and the American Federation of Labor urged all of its locals to support the work of the FBVE, the reeducation program collided with organized labor's long-standing suspicion of state-sponsored vocational training.
All norovirus outbreak strains reported to the FBVE network from January 1999 through November 2008 were included if a full or partial capsid sequence was involved.
The above selection criteria were applied to the FBVE database to retrospectively identify clusters of outbreaks that may have involved international dissemination of food.
In the FBVE dataset of 1,456 capsid sequences, 36 outbreaks had previously been identified as linked outbreaks in 10 clusters, based on standard epidemiologic investigation (24).
Strains were genotyped by using a previously described method for sequence analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene regions B, C, and D (23) because these regions were used in the FBVE network.
This repeated introduction of sporadic cases would remain undetected at present because routine surveillance for sporadic cases is rare (32) and is not the current practice of FBVE. To identify the origin of newly emerging and rare strains, systematic monitoring of additional potential sources, such as cattle and swine (33) as well as sporadic human cases, is necessary.
Our study demonstrates the added value of a reporting system amalgamated across countries; the FBVE dataset can form the basis of this tool, which may be a first step towards detection of diffuse outbreaks.
Because surveillance systems are known to vary in terms of design, effectiveness, and priorities (6,9-11), a structured telephone survey/questionnaire (available from the authors) was conducted among FBVE participants to categorize national surveillance systems of the involved countries.
These sources included the FBVE network, ECDC, Food Safety Authorities, Early Warning Response System messages, diagnostic and reference laboratories, local health institutions, and ship owners.
The FBVE database (6) enables analyses of combined epidemiologic and virologic data.