The chromosomal and gene defects that have links to FCED encode for a variety of cell functions such as collagen synthesis and enzyme functions.
Patients with FCED have abnormal types of collagen in their Descemet's membrane and endothelial cells also show changes in specific proteins and enzymes concerned with cell function and cell-death.
Cataract surgery results in inevitable progression of FCED.
When patients present with cataract and FCED, it is often difficult to ascertain how much of the symptoms are due to each pathology.
As FCED progresses further, best-corrected vision will deteriorate such that it remains reduced all day.
Late-onset FCED is more common in females and has a higher prevalence in Caucasians than other races.
The exceptions to this are patients under 40 with familial early-onset FCED, where it may be justifiable to leave the subject's natural lens.
The more difficult decision is what to advise patients with less advanced FCED coming up to lens surgery because cataract surgery causes inevitable further reduction in ECD.
The bags made by Citi volunteers would be sold and the money used by FCED to help fund its livelihood projects for women.
Aside from shopping bags, CHAP and FCED beneficiaries also turn old newspapers and other discarded paper into wine caddies, tissue holders, coin purses and cellular phone cases.