The compounds (3a-j) were also evaluated against INF A/H1N1 subtype (A/Ned/378/05), INF A/H3N2 subtype (A/HK/7/87), INF B (B/Ned/537/05) in MDCK, FCoV, FHV in CRFK, parainfluenza-3 virus, reovirus-1, sindbis virus, coxsackie B4 virus, punta toro virus in Vero, HSV-1 (KOS), HSV-2 (G), HSV-1 TK KOS ACV, vaccinia virus, VSV, in HEL and VSV, coxsackie B4 virus and RSV in HeLa cell cultures.
Anti-feline corona virus and anti-feline herpes virus activity and cytotoxicity of the compounds 3a-j in Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney cell cultures Compound C[C.sub.50] (a) E[C.sub.50] (b) ([micro]M) ([micro]M) FCoV FHV 3a >100 >100 >100 3b 50.6 >20 >20 3c 20.7 >20 >20 3d >100 >100 >100 3e 4.4 >4 >4 3f 50.8 >20 >20 3g 24.
If the cat's immune response is strong and the viral invasion is weak, exposure to FCoV
will rarely result in obvious clinical disease, although some cats may experience mild upper respiratory problems (sneezing, watery eyes and nasal discharge) and others may experience gastrointestinal illness and fleeting bouts of diarrhea.
To date, the precise mutation or mutations that cause a shift in FCoV biotype have not been identified.
Because FCoV spike protein plays critical roles in receptor binding (S1) and fusion (S2), we focused on structural changes in this protein and potential role in altered cellular tropism.
We tested RNA isolated from organs or ascites of cats with feline infectious peritonitis and from feces of apparently healthy cats for the presence of FCoV RNA by using a reverse transcription nested PCR (RT-nPCR) targeting the highly conserved 3x untranslated region (23).
The full-length and partial FCoV genomic nucleotide sequences we obtained were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database (www.ncbi.
(9), we determined and analyzed M genes from 43 FCoV
genomes, 20 of which came from cats in single-cat households, and 23 from cattery animals.
After RT-PCR with primer pair N3SN/R3AS, CCoV and FCoV
reference strains yielded an amplicon >1,000 bp, with the exception of TGEV-like CCoV 341/05, which gave a 929-bp product as a consequence of a 154-nt deletion in ORF7b (14).
An alternative circulating virulent-avirulent FCoV
hypothesis of viral pathogenesis suggests that distinctive benign and pathogenic strains of FECV circulate in a population, and that the disease will develop only in those persons infected by the virulent strains.
Cats 1, 2, and 4 had negative test results for FeLV and FIV, but all 3 cats had high antibody titers against FCoV
. FCV was detected in the swab from cat 2, and a double infection with FCV and FHV-1 was detected in cat 4.
Canine coronavirus (CCoV) type I and type II are included in group 1 coronaviruses, and their evolution is related to that of feline coronavirus (FCoV
) type I and type II.