US surveillance data from PulseNet, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (25), and FDOSS
also indicate that Salmonella Dublin has been isolated from ground beef and boneless beef products and has been associated with outbreak-associated illnesses from beef products.
We reviewed all reports of foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella infections to FDOSS during 1998-2008 and included in the analysis those outbreaks caused by a single, laboratory-confirmed serotype.
During 1998-2008, a total of 1,491 outbreaks of Salmonella infections were reported to FDOSS, and 1,193 (80%) were caused by a single serotype.
Hoekstra for assistance during this study and state and local health departments for voluntarily reporting outbreaks to the FDOSS.
Serotype information was matched to each outbreak reported in FDOSS. In addition, we conducted a systematic literature review of published reports of listeriosis outbreaks by using 5 electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Toxnet, and CAB Direct) and medical subject headings "Listeria monocytogenes" "Listeria infections," "listeriosis," "disease outbreaks," and "foodborne diseases." When discrepancies were identified between published reports and FDOSS, the published data were used.
During 1998-2008, a total of 26 listeriosis outbreaks were reported to FDOSS; 24 were confirmed (Figure 1; Table 1).
FDOSS does not collect information on ethnicity or pregnancy status, but other surveillance data indicate that pregnant Hispanic women have disproportionately higher rates of listeriosis (6).
These observations coupled with the paucity of genotype information reported directly through FDOSS
underscores the need for and importance of CaliciNet, the recently implemented national laboratory surveillance network for norovirus outbreaks (37).
We used data from 2000-2007 for NNDSS, COVIS, and FDOSS and annual counts of reported illnesses for our probability distributions.
enterocolitica that were also reported to FDOSS as outbreak associated and applied the inverse of this proportion, 25.5, to those pathogens (online Technical Appendix 4).