FECD is a blinding disease and a primary reason of endogenous corneal endothelial degeneration.
Ultraviolet A and Nrf2-Regulated Antioxidant Defense in FECD. Ultraviolet A (UV-A) with the wavelengths of 320 to 400 nm is the main source of solar radiation, which plays an important role in ROS production, and therefore may be related to the etiology of FECD.
DJ-1 and Nrf2-Regulated Antioxidant Defense in FECD. DJ-1, encoded by the PARK7 gene, is a multifunctional protein and is universally expressed in most human cells and tissues.
SFN and Nrf2-Regulated Antioxidant Defense in FECD. SFN is an Nrf2 level enhancer, which is found in green cruciferous vegetables like broccoli .
Jurkunas and her associates compared corneal epithelial tissue samples from FECD
patients who received corneal transplants to samples derived from subjects who did not have the disease.
One approach involves transcorneal freezing to damage corneal endothelial cells in the central portion of the cornea in patients with FECD followed by the topical delivery of a ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, in the form of eye drops to encourage peripheral endothelial cells that had been unaffected by the freeze injury to repopulate the central zone of the corneal endothelium [10-12].
A small series of first-in-man surgeries to test the concept of transcorneal freezing followed by short-term ROCK inhibitor eye drop application for the treatment of FECD was conducted a few years ago and showed promise [10-12].
The central corneal thickness in adult pigs is usually around 660 [micro]m [29, 30], which approximates a representative measurement of edematous corneal thickness in individuals with FECD [31, 32].
A number of investigative surgical procedures, which utilize the selective ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, to combat FECD and bullous keratopathy are under investigation, including cell-injection therapy [10-14].
Usually, corneal endothelial abnormality in FECD may be observed before subjective symptoms develop .
 suggested custom-designed ultra-high-resolution anterior segment OCT (UHR-OCT) to be a new approach for FECD diagnosis because they found DM thickness increased in FECD patients compared with normal people.
In this work, we aimed to evaluate the potential of Pentacam Scheimpflug densitometry as an objective, quantitative tool for approaching the morphological and optical alterations of cornea in FECD patients.