FGCX

AcronymDefinition
FGCXFlorida Gulf Coast Railroad
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[Q.sub.m] values for the binding of metal ions onto FGCX followed a decreasing sequence of Pb (3.96) > Cu (2.89) > Ni (2.8) > Cd (1.82) > Zn (1.76 mmol/g), whereas [K.sub.L] which determines the affinity of binding proved that the GFCX sites had greater affinity for Cu and the trend followed a decreasing order of Cu (3.71) > Pb (2) > Ni (1.33) > Cd (1.08) > Zn (0.86 l/mmol).
The Freundlich model was successful in analysing experimental data of Ni and Zn ions onto FGCX while that of Pb, Cu, and Cd did not fit the model very well.
The data for the adsorption of Pb, Ni and Zn onto FGCX was in agreement with Temkin model with [R.sup.2] value [greater than or equal to] 0.98 in contrast to the [.sup.R]2 value (>0.85) obtained for the adsorption of Cu and Cd.
The plot of ln K versus 1/T for the adsorption of Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cd onto FGCX is presented in Figure 15.
The straight-line plot of the pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion model for the binding of assessed metal ions (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Ni) onto FGCX is presented in Figures 16(a), 16(b), and 16(c), and the values of the parameters in each case are presented in Table 4.
Reusability of the Spent FGCX. Adsorbent reuse is an important aspect of adsorption studies in that its reusability helps lower the processing cost.
Comprehensive investigation was performed in order to access the effect adsorption parameters have on the binding of metal ions onto FGCX. The adsorption of Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cd was dependent on pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, agitation speed, and ionic strength.
Caption: Figure 3: XRD of CX, CCX, and FGCX, respectively.
Caption: Figure 7: Effect of pH on percentage removal of heavy metal ions by FGCX (conditions: 7 g/l FGCX; contact time: 70 min; Temperature: 25[degrees]C; initial concentration: 0.8 mmol/L; agitation speed: 120 rpm).
Caption: Figure 8: Effect of contact time on percentage removal of heavy metal ions by FGCX (conditions: 7 g/l FGCX; pH: Pb = 5, Cu = 5, Ni = 7, Zn = 6, and Cd = 6; Temperature: 25[degrees]C; initial concentration: 0.8 mmol/L; agitation speed: 120 rpm).
Caption: Figure 9: Effect of contact time on percentage removal of heavy metal ions by FGCX (conditions: 7 g/l FGCX; pH: Pb = 5, Cu = 5, Ni = 7, Zn = 6, and Cd = 6; contact time: 60 min; initial concentration: 0.8 mmol/L; agitation speed: 120 rpm).
Caption: Figure 10: Effect of initial concentration on percentage removal of heavy metal ions by FGCX (conditions: 6 g/l FGCX; pH: Pb = 5, Cu = 5, Ni = 7, Zn = 6, and Cd = 6; contact time: 60 min; agitation speed: 120 rpm; temperature: 45[degrees]C).