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For parents with mental disabilities, FGDM can provide
decision-making" (FGDM) or alternative case conferencing.
This is an enhancement of the flattened gradient density model (FGDM) developed in [Abbas (2007)].
FGDM developed in [Abbas (2007 )] modifies these models by using various values of b to determine the population density.
What is FGDM?: Putting Families back into Child Protection Partnership: Family Group Decision Making.
Similarly, Burford and Pennell's (Burford & Pennell, 1996, 1998; Pennell & Burford, 2000) research on an FGDM project to reduce family violence in Newfoundland and Labrador suggested that the sanction, support, and resources of government and professionals could facilitate the family's decision to stop violence within it.
Secondly, and perhaps most importantly, Pennell is asking the correct question: "How widespread is FGC and is there model fidelity?" Merkel-Holguin (2003) reports that in 2003, more than 150 communities in 35 states and approximately 20 countries are implementing FGDM initiatives.
Although research and evaluation of FGDM is in its infancy, a few evaluations have specifically looked at father and paternal relation involvement in creating plans for children.
Her manner of describing FGDM suggests that she believes the lack of children's rights to be the major problem with this new proposal, (19) yet she does not come out and advocate children's rights as the solution.
In section 3 we will study the pattern of these KAS by using (mono pivotal and multi pivotal) FGDM. We have developed FGDM , (a modified form of the usual population density model) to study the appropriateness of the density distribution of the selected KAS.
Many of the studies imply that FGDM does not diminish the need for formal services provided by statutory or community-based agencies and that FGC is not an alternative to providing quality services to children and families." In addition to providing resources, the community can play multiple roles including: serving on an advisory board guiding FGC implementation; attending conferences to listen to families' needs and match services accordingly; working collaboratively, based on families' perspectives and needs, to decategorize services and realign them if necessary.
For example, the number of communities in the United States trying Family Group Decision Making (FGDM) grew from five in 1995, to over one hundred by 2000; similarly, in 1994, four pilot programs began in England and Wales, and now fifty-five local authorities or nongovernmental groups have FGDM programs in those countries (Nixon, Merkel-Holguin, Sivak and Gunderson, 2001).