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In the present study, we evaluated the effect of SFF on oocyte maturation, pointing to changes in the expression of genes related to apoptosis (Bax and Bcl-2), embryo development (LAMA1, IL-6 and FGF4) and stress (HSPB1).
For promoting hepatocyte differentiation, FGF4 and HGF were used; the latter has the function on cytoskeletal rearrangement and inhibiting MSC proliferation through ras-ERK1/2 MAPK, and also antiapoptosis via PI3K/AKT pathway (27,32), but it cannot induce further maturation into hepatocyte-like cells (33).
Lef1 works in association with Bmps to activate Alx4 to signal mesenchymal condensation and is required to activate Fgf4 expression for the Wnt cascade [Hudson et al., 1998; Nie et al., 2006b].
Fgf4 hasn't been linked to short limbs in humans, at least not yet.
Yano et al also demonstrated over expression of FGF4 in their study.
"FGF4 is a protein that causes the growth of blood vessels by stimulating both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells," Dr.
An expressed fgf4 retrogene is associated with breed-defining chondrodysplasia in domestic dogs.
The researchers specifically found that in contrast to other dog breeds, all short-legged dog breeds have an extra copy of the gene that codes for a growth-promoting protein called fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4).
More recently, clinical studies using adenoviral vectors encoding angiogenic factors, VEG[F.sub.121]) and FGF4, have targeted coronary circulation.
Some Oct4 targets are known including FGF4, Utf1, OPN, Rex1/Zfp42, Fbx15, and Sox2, and all are pluripotent transcription factors [47-49].
The results showed that 3 individual O-iPS clones expressed comparable levels of ES makers (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, Utf1, Fgf4, Esg1, Gdf3, Zfp296, Cripto, Dax1, Neo, and Nat1) with F-iPS clones and ESCs.
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- FGF-inducible kinase
- FGFR signalling adaptor
- FGFR substrate 2