Researchers screened 4,365 children in these areas of north, central, and southern Japan respectively, using the same equipment, procedures, and methodology as the FHMS. Though their sample size was limited and therefore statistically weak, scientists found that "the frequency of thyroid cysts and nodules was relatively high in our study, when compared with the data presented in the Fukushima Health Management Survey (56.83% vs.
Cancer tests in the wake of the 1986 nuclear accident at Chernobyl do not serve as FHMS controls either, despite unscientific media comparisons.
However, an apples-to-apples comparison may be within reach of the FHMS investigators in the ironic form of their own data.
We were able to capture FHMs in sufficient numbers from only one of these sites (designated the reference site), which is located within the Oak Valley State Wildlife Management Area.
During 9 days in June 1999, FHMs (n = 97) were collected at each of the sites using a seine or minnow traps.
In vitro gonadal synthesis of sex steroid hormones was examined in female and male FHMs following a modification of the protocol described by McMaster et al.
In vitro production of [E.sub.2] and T in female FHMs and T in male FHMs was measured via radioimmunoassay on extracted culture media as described previously (Guillette et al.
We tested for differences between sites for body length and mass, gonad mass, hormones, and head morphometrics in FHMs by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or analysis of covariance and ANOVA on the CV-1 AR-dependent transcriptional activation assays (StatView 5.0).
No significant difference was noted in length (p = 0.29) and mass (p = 0.70) among female FHMs from the three sites (Table 2).
As with females, no significant difference was noted in length (p = 0.14) or body mass (p = 0.15) among male FHMs collected at the three sites (Table 3).
Also, through histologic examination, we confirmed that all FHMs collected were adults and that the reproductive stage of the gonads in males and females did not vary among sites.
In a recent laboratory study, FHMs exposed to trenbolone-[beta] displayed severely altered female and male reproductive biology (Ankley et al.