* An instrument to measure FICD is developed using survey data from exporters.
The study provides a fundamental explanation of how FICD is a major disturbance to the initiation and maintenance of cross-border business relationships.
58) has described it as "the most basic and essential of all cognitive processes." I explain how "foreignness-induced cognitive disorientation" (hereinafter, FICD) is a mental phenomenon that confuses the perception of the world and affects staff attitudes and behaviors in internationalizing firms.
First, on a theoretical level, I draw on the theory of cognitive categorization to define FICD and explain its impact on export relationships.
I call this "foreignness-induced cognitive disorientation," or FICD, and propose the following definition, which emphasizes the managerial relevance of FICD by considering both its antecedents and its consequences for exporting firms:
First, it conceptualizes FICD as a neuro-psychological phenomena (cognitive disorientation) when previous definitions reflect an absence of actual conceptualization.