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Therefore, amplified product can be used for detection, serotyping, sequencing, cloning, and other molecular studies of Pakistani, West Eurasian as well as universal FMDV's strains.
FMDV is reported throughout the world constantly and an outbreak occurred in Europe which caused over 8 billion dollars loss in UK, and over 2000 cases were confirmed, leading to slaughter of several million animals (Mahmoud and Galbat, 2017; Thompson et al., 2012).
Cattle challenge viruses were obtained by passage of the original FMDV isolate (without cell passage, or only 1 or 2 cell passages) in cattle tongue.
We estimated time-resolved phylogenetic trees for 101 serotype A FMDV G-VII VP1 sequences by using BEAST version 1.8.4 (9) and incorporated the general time-reversible model with gamma-distributed rate variation among sites and 0.5 prior proportion of invariant sites, the Bayesian Skyline tree before accounting for demographic uncertainty, and a log-normal uncorrelated relaxed clock across branches (10).
The 3D gene, a viral RNA polymerase in FMDV, has a vital role in virus replication .
The B-cell binding site located in the G-H loop (around residues 140-160) of FMDV VP1 protein has been identified as a predominant epitope that elicits neutralizing antibodies against this virus in natural hosts and animal models [4, 5].
In addition, some host cell proteins that interact with the FMDV proteins VP1, 2C, and 3A were identified by the yeast two-hybrid system [11, 14-16].
Buffaloes are considered major hosts within FMDV ecology due to the fact that they undergo frequently a subclinical course, infection can be established at pharyngeal level even though there are neutralizing antibodies from previous infections or vaccinations, and there is the possibility of FMDV transmission to other animals sharing the same pastures or installations, such as cattle [2, 11, 12].
The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a member of the genus Aphthovirus within the family Picornaviridae and has seven serotypes: O, A, C, Asia1, and Southern African Territories (SAT) 1, SAT2, and SAT3 [1, 2].
The disease is caused by FMD virus (FMDV), which is a prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus.
"We first discovered that a member of the type III interferon family could actually inhibit FMDV replication in cell cultures," de los Santos says.
In 28 attempts to infect healthy cows with foot-and-mouth-disease virus (FMDV) the researchers only observed eight successful transmissions.
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