The FMMI constructed here is meant to capture this mentality using the following assertions included (with their antithesis) in die WVS, which those interviewed were asked to evaluate on a ten-point scale.
(11) I then averaged the results for the three variables to obtain the FMMI. (12) Because I consider the first two questions to reflect more clearly an ideology that values the functioning and outcomes of a market economy, I have assigned each of them an impact of 40 percent.
The FMMI by country for 1990, 1996, 2006, and 2012 is presented in the appendix.
Many countries that used to be behind the Iron Curtain have lower FMMI scores.
In 1997, when FEMA unveiled the FMMI strategic plan, some regional and local authorities became concerned about FEMA's new requirement that they provide local data and maps as digital files to aid in DFIRM production.
Encouraged by a growing inventory of DFIRMs, in September of 1997 James Lee Witt, then Director of FEMA, issued a seven-year strategic plan introduced as the Flood Map Modernization Initiative (FMMI).
Program managers at FEMA, mapping professionals, and other stakeholders in the FMMI, which include state, tribal, and local governments and private sector enterprises urged the Clinton Administration to recognize that achieving a complete DFIRM inventory would rely extensively on nurturing flood map partnerships within NFIP-participating communities.
Bush's FY2003 budget request stated that "inadequate funding hinders the [flood mapping] program," and that "maps are needed to assist rebuilding after disasters and to steer future development away from floodplains." (15) To address this problem, he requested $300 million in aggregate to fund the FMMI from FY2003 through FY2007.
The new method is called fuzzy min-max neural network for image segmentation (FMMIS).
The training set was used to adjust the FMMIS parameters.
Once the seeds are determined, they become the input data for FMMIS. The seed locations in the image are determined by an adaptive thresholding method, which is based on certain features of each wood board image.
The second step is the FMMIS method, which places hyperboxes defined in the 2D geometric space by pairs of min-max points for each spatial coordinate of the image (rectangular boxes in the case of 2D images).