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FMO3 (flavin monooxygenase 3) is the preponderant enzyme in the liver, and flavin monooxygenase 1 and flavin monooxygenase 2 (FMO1 and FMO2, respectively) can also cause TMAO oxidation.
FMO3 is the most important FMO type in the liver and the level of FMO3 in the lungs, kidney, fetal liver and small intestines are 4.5%, 3.7%, 2.1% and 1% of the FMO3 level in the liver, respectively.
Subsequently, sulindac sulfide is oxidized to be the inactive metabolite, sulindac sulfone (Figure 1), which is catalyzed by the principal isozyme involved in the main metabolic pathway, flavin-containing monooxygenase subtype 3 (FMO3) [3, 4].
However, another group observed that although the blockade of FMO3 resulted in decreased TMAO concentrations, increased atherosclerosis was also observed.
Oxidation of tamoxifen by human flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) 1 and FMO3 to tamoxifen-N-oxide and its novel reduction back to tamoxifen by human cytochromes P450 and hemoglobin.
(37) Additionally, in certain individuals supplemental riboflavin may be extremely important, as a genetic polymorphism in the flavin containing molecule flavin monooxygenase (FMO3) has been associated with a decreased ability to detoxify drugs, (38) implicating a general inadequacy in detoxification ability.
It seems too significant an entity to blame on the flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 enzyme (FMO3).
The enzyme known as FMO3, for example, helps break down diet-derived nitrogen-containing compounds, including trimethylamine, and possibly drugs containing nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus.
FMO3 is both the most abundant of all the isoforms of FMO and the isoform with the most known clinically relevant polymorphisms .
variants CYP450 CYP1A2 6 CYP2A6 7 CYP2B6 10 CYP2C19 12 CYP2C8 4 CYP2C9 10 CYP2D6 18 CYP2E1 1 CYP2J2 5 CYP3A4 2 CYP3A5 8 Non-CYP enzymes CDA 2 DPYD 6 FMO2 1 FMO3 2 GSTP1 2 NAT1 12 NAT2 7 TPMT 5 UGT1A1 9 Transporters ABCB1 6 ABCC2 6 SLCO1B1 9 SLCO2B1 1 SLC15A2 4 SLC22A1 6 SLC22A2 4 (a) Variants tested include SNPs, insertions, deletions, triallelic variants, and nucleotide repeats.
Inclusion of additional polymorphisms in FMO3 and BCHE, especially those in the promoter region, would be worthwhile.
2004), and FMO3 (flavin-containing mono-oxygenase 3) (Allerston et al.
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